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Writing & Citing Music: Citations

Writing about music, and citing music resources, is different than most other subjects. This Guide is designed to help.

Citation Managers

Citation managers like RefWorks, EndNote, Mendeley and Zotero help you track and organize your citations, so that when you're writing your paper, you can easily cite your sources. Citation managers also help you insert citations, create endnotes and bibliographies. 

Style Guides

Style Guide LibGuides

Other Style Guide Resources

Helpful citation guides like The Writing Center guide from the University of Wisconsin-Madison will provide assistance with the most basic and frequently cited materials. For additional and more obscure material types, search Google, as many other citation guides exist from university to university. See the below screenshot as an example.

Image of a google search to find additional citation-related assistance

Citation Tracking: Finding articles by citation

Once you have one (or more) useful article on a topic, use the references at the end of article to find more sources on your topic using our Citation Search tool.  This helps you see what was written previous to your current article, often called citing backward.


Use Google Scholar to see who has cited your article after it was published.  This helps you see what has been written after your article was published, citing forward.

 Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License by Justina Elmore, University of Rochester

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Outline of Citation Practice for Scores, based on Turabian Models

 The examples below are generic models, using the names of various data elements in place of the particular information you would supply for specific editions of music when citing them in your bibliography. For example, the composer's name is represented as "Lastname, Firstname," etc. When supplying information, include all elements that apply, and omit those that do not(!). For "format," use the following specific terms:

Score [& parts, if that is how edition is published]


Miniature score

Vocal score Solo(s) with piano reduction (for concertos, etc.)

(NB: No format designation should be used for works such as solo piano music or solo violin music, because there is only one possibility.) This should be considered a supplement to Sampsel, Appendix E, pp. 262-71.

1. Basic citation form for a work published separately.

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Piece. Edited by Mary Doe. Publisher's Series Title, no. 10. City: Publisher, date. Format (if relevant).

2. Reprint edition: add that information at the end.

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Piece. Edited by John Doe. Publisher's Series Title, no. 10. City: Publisher, date; reprint, New City: New Publisher, newdate. Format (if relevant).

3. Anthology

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Piece." In Title of Anthology, pp. 10-20. Edited by Mary Doe. Publisher's Series title. City: Publisher, date. Format (if relevant).

4. Part of an individual volume in the composer's complete works (Gesamtausgabe). Note that in this and the following examples, General Editor is the editor of the whole set, whereas Volume Editor is the person who edited this particular volume of the complete works.

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Piece." In [use his here if composer's name not expressed in the following:] Title of the Complete Works Set. Edited by General Editor. Vol. 10: Title of Individual Volume, ed. Volume Editor, 10-20. City: Publisher, date.

5. Part of an individual volume in a Monumental Edition (Denkmäler) set. Note that the Monumental Edition title is not italicized, consistent with Turabian practice for citing series (see examples in 11.16, 11.17 and 11.26).

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Piece." In Title of Individual Volume, ed. Volume Editor, 10-20. Title of Monumental Edition, ed. General Editor, ser. no., vol. no. City: Publisher, date.


Examples of Bibliographic Citation for Music Sources (Scores)

Based on a similar work by David Fenske (Indiana University)

Parsed according to Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th edition, rev. Grossman and Bennet (1996).

Citations of musical scores, recordings, and performances in notes and bibliographies are briefly treated in Turabian 8:142-46, and 11:58-62, respectively.

Choice of quotation marks or italicizing of titles in citations appears in 4:14-33, and the use of both for a title within a title, in 11:21-23.

1. One Composer Hindemith, Paul. Kammermusik Nr. 2 (Klavier-Konzert) für obligates Klavier und 12 SoloInstrumente, op. 36, no. 1. Mainz: B. Schott’s Söhne, n.d. Miniature score.

2. Two Composers [If two or more composers’ works are contained in a single score, then there is also probably a general or collective title: e.g., Two Famous Piano Concerti, and an editor or compiler. In this case you would use Turabian 11:7 or 11:11. Or you have an arrangement, which we treat elsewhere below.]

3. Three Composers [use models for two]

4. More Than Three Authors/Composers [Turabian 11:6. If your point is better made citing only one of these works, see “Component part by one author in a work edited by another,” no. 14 below.]

Four Famous Violin Concertos: Beethoven, op. 61 in D Major; Brahms, op. 77 in D Major; Mendelssohn, op. 64 in E Minor; Tschaikowsky, op. 35 in D Major. New York: Edwin F. Kalmus, n.d. Miniature score.

5. Institution, Association, or the Like As ‘Author/Composer’ [Turabian 11:10]

Benedictines of Solesmes. The Liber Usualis with Introduction and Rubrics in English. Tournai, Belgium: Desclee & Co., 1956.

6. Editor, Compiler, or Arranger as ‘Author’ [Turabian 11:11]

Davison, Archibald T., and Apel, Willi, eds. Historical Anthology of Music. 2 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1949-50.

7. Author’s/Composer’s Work Translated/Arranged by Another [Turabian 11:12]

Bartók, Béla. Mikrokosmos Suite. Arranged for orchestra by Tibor Serly. New York: Boosey & Hawkes, 1943. Orchestral score.

8. Author’s/Composer’s Work Contained in His/Her Collected Works [Turabian 11:13; do not extrapolate from 8:142, which uses a different form.] (To cite a composition by one composer in a volume of works by several composers, see “Component part by one composer in a work edited by another,” no. 14 below.)

Gluck, Christoph Willibald. La Danza: Componimento drammatico pastorale in einem Akt von Pietro Metastasio, herausgegeben von Gerhard Croll, Band 13. Italienische Opere serie und Opernzerenaden, Abteilung 3. In Sämtliche Werke. Herausgegeben im Auftrage des Staatlichen Instituts für Musikforschung/Berlin min Unterstutzung der Stadt Hannover. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1969. Score.

9. Separately Titled Volume in a Multivolume Set [as opposed to an open-ended series] [Turabian 11:14-15]

Davison, Archibald T., and Apel, Willi, eds. Baroque, Rococo, and Pre-Classical Music, Vol. 2. In Historical Anthology of Music. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950. Score.

Albrecht, Hans, ed. Vesperarum Precum Officia (Wittemberg 1540), herausgegeben von Hans Joachim Moser, Band 4. In Georg Rhau: Musikdrucke aus den Jahren 1538 bis 1545 in praktischer Neuausgabe. Kassel: Bärenreiter, n.d.; St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, n.d. Score.

10. Work in Series [Turabian 11:16-17]

Heinichen, J. D. Sonate für Flöte, Oboe und Cembalo mit Violoncell. Collegium Musicum, no. 78. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, n.d. Score and parts.

11. Edition Other Than the First [Turabian 11:18]

Burkhart, Charles. Anthology for Musical Analysis. 2nd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972. Score.

12. Reprint Edition [Turabian 11:19]

Rameau, Jean-Philippe. Nouvelles Suites de Pièces de Clavecin. Paris: L’Auteur, Sr. Boivin, Sr. Leclerc, 1723; reprint ed., Monuments of Music and Music Literature in Facsimile, series 1, no. 13. New York: Broude Brothers, 1967. Score.

13. Named Author of Introduction, Preface, and/or Foreword [Turabian 11:24]

Hughes, Anselm, ed. Worcester Mediaeval Harmony of the Thirteenth & Fourteenth Centuries. Transcribed, with General Introduction, Fifteen Facsimiles and Notes. With a Preface by Sir Ivor Atkins. Mit einer Einleitung von Luther A. Dittmer. Nashdom Abbey, Burnham, Bucks: Plainson and Mediaeval Music Society, 1923; reprint ed., New York: Georg Olms Verlag, 1971. Score.

14. Component Part by One Composer in a Work Edited by Another [Turabian 11:26]

Liszt, Franz. “Les Preludes.” In Famous Symphonic Poems in Score, pp. 52-74. Edited and revised by Albert E. Wier. New York: Bonanza Books, 1938. Miniature score.

15. Secondary Source of Citation. [Turabian 11:31]

Petrucci, Ottaviano. Intabolatura de lauto, libro primo, p. 39. Quoted in Willi Apel, The Notation of Polyphonic Music, 900-1600, p.63. Cambridge, Mass.: Mediaeval Academy of America, 1953. Tablature.

16. Review [Turabian 11:46-47] Pirie, Peter J. Review of The Midsummer Marriage, by Michael Tippett. The Music Review 37 (November 1976): 315-16.

17. Dissertations [Doctoral], Theses [Master’s] (Unpublished) [Turabian 11:55; Turabian treats published dissertations as monographs; see no. 1 above.]

Clinkscale, Edward H. “The Complete Works of Antoine de Fevin.” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1965.